Frequently Asked Questions

Can a pair of chlorinators/sulfonators configured as an automatic switchover system supply a single water line?

Two Hydro Instruments chlorinator/sulfonators, connected to a switchover unit feeding one remote meter and ejector. When the current supply tank empties, the switchover unit automatically switches supply to the chlorinator/sulfonator connected to the full tank. Learn more.

Can multiple chlorinators/sulfonators draw gas from a single container or tank?

Yes. Multiple Hydro Instruments chlorinators or sulfonators can draw gas from a single source and feed correspondingly multiple water or waste water disinfection systems. This is done through the use of a manifold device which mounts on the container and allows multiple chlorinators or sulfonators to be attached.

The reader is asked to keep in mind that the capacity of the container must be sufficient to allow for the sum total of the simultaneous gas draws from all the devices mounted on the manifold.

Can one chlorinator/sulfonator be used to inject gas into multiple water lines?

A single Hydro Instruments chlorinator/sulfonator, feeding multiple remote meters (two shown here), each connected to an ejector. Each remote meter-ejector pair (called a feed-point) operates independently. The maximum rate of gas at any given time drawn by all of the feed-points cannot exceed the single chlorinator/sulfonator capacity. Learn more.

How is chlorine used to disinfect water?

It is accomplished through the process known as chlorination, a process used to disinfect water and waste water through the use of chlorine by using a chlorinator device.

How is the amount/rate of gas passing through a chlorinator/sulfonator device controlled and measured?

All Hydro Instruments chlorinators and sulfonators are designed so that the outgoing gas must pass through a flow meter which controls and measures the gas up to the maximum allowed for the device.

What do the terms Free Chlorine, Combined Chlorine and Total Chlorine mean?

Free chlorine is defined as the concentration of residual chlorine in water present as dissolved gas (Cl2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and/or hypochlorite ion (OCl-). A test kit which measures free chlorine will indicate the combined concentrations of HOCl, OCl-, and Cl2.

Combined chlorine is defined as the residual chlorine existing in water in chemical combination with ammonia or organic amines which can be found in natural or polluted waters. Ammonia is sometimes deliberately added to chlorinated public water supplies to provide inorganic chloramines. This process is generally referred to as “chloramination”.

Total chlorine is the sum of free and combined chlorine. When chlorinating most potable water supplies, total chlorine is essentially equal to free chlorine because the concentration of ammonia or organic nitrogen compounds (needed to form combined chlorine) will be very low. When chloramines are present in a municipal water supply, total chlorine will be higher than free chlorine.

What happens to an operating chlorinator/sulfonator if the water source is shut off? What if the vacuum line is damaged or disconnected?

The water passing through the ejector device creates the vacuum which draws the gas through the connected chlorinator/sulfonator device. Therefore, if the water source is turned off or if the vacuum line is damaged or disconnected, the necessary vacuum is lost and the flow of gas is stopped.

Neither the chlorinator/sulfonator or ejector devices require electrical power to operate.

What is dechlorination?

The practice of removing all or a controlled part of a total combined chlorine residual in water or wastewater. Dechlorination is normally accomplished through the measured injection of sulfur dioxide, utilizing a sulfonator device.

Sulfur dioxide reacts with chlorine to form hydrochloric acid, thereby removing chlorine. The amount of hydrochloric acid formed is minimal, and has very little effect on the pH of the discharged wastewater.